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)L OF EDUCATION 
LIBRARY 



TEXTBOOK 
COLLECTION 



fmw^s^^ 




H. o. wniiAMa 



oei ',' i 'Sc'> 



Cem Pronouncing Dictionary. 



AN AUTHORITATIVE HAND-BOOK OF ELEVEN THOUSAND 
\ WORDS IN COMMON USE. 



I 



By LILLA-M^TENNEY, 



NOT FOR DEFINITIONS. 



CORRECT SPELLlf^j'TIOI^C'B ikq^^^^NCIATION, WITH 

AN EXERCISE il^*^RONUNCIATION AND EXTENDED 

LIST OF WORDS OFTEN INCOURECTLY 

PRONOUNCED. 



ALSO MANY VALUABLE TABLES OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES, 
AND OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION. 



THE BURROWS BROTYl^^^ ^QWSK^SC^^ 

NOS. 23, 25, A«I> ^7 ^\3C\A\i K^TK^M^-. 



594J70 



i^ 



Copyright^ 1888, 
By The Burrows Brothers Company 



John Wilson and Son, Cambridgk. 



PREFACE. 



It is the purpose of this work to furnish a convenient and 
authoritative handbook of words in common use, which are 
frequently misspelled or mispronounced. 

In its compilation the greatest care has been used to make 
it absolutely reliable. The latest unabridged editions of 
Webster's, Worcester's, and The Imperial Dictionary liave 
been used ; also Stormonth's English Dictionary, Soule and 
Wheeler's Manual of English Pronunciation and Spelling, 
Soule and Campbell's Pronouncing Handbook, The Orthoe- 
pist, and incidentally many other works of reference. 

The simplest spelling given in either of the Unabridged 
Dictionaries is the one usually adopted. 

The pronunciation which has the greatest weight of au- 
thority is given the preference, sometimes to the exclusion of 
an allowable pronunciation. Two pronunciations are given 
only when the authorities are about equally divided. By the 
phonetic method of spelling and the marking of the vowel 
sounds as explained in the Key, devised expressly for this 
work, the pronunciation is more simply and accurately given 
than in other dictionaries. 

Many words formed of a root and prefix have been omitted, 
as the root word, found under its proper letter, is usually suffi- 
cient to indicate the correct spelling and pronunciation. 

A few simple rules of spelling are given wKvcK ^^-^^s. •v.'^acs«» 
of words not inserted. . ^^^. 

The practice of readmgiVowdVXv^ «»^«^'^^^''^^'^^^^^^^>^ ^ 
at the end of the Dictiouax^, vaW\ >oei ^'''^^;^^^. 
for those who wish to <:u\t\v^te <;orc^c'<- ^^«««*^^ ^' 



CONTENTS. 



PAGB 

Preface iil 

Rules of Orthography vi 

Key to the Pronunciation . vii 

Abbreviations used in the Dictionary viii 

Spelling and Pronouncing Dictionary of English Words, 
including many Foreign Words and Phrases, and 

Names of Persons and Places i 

Tables of Weights and Measures 103 

List of Abbreviations, with Explanations 114 

Foreign Words and Phrases, with English Translation 118 

Key to Pronunciation of Modem Languages .... 134 

Rules for Spelling . 139 

Punctuation Marks, and their Origin 140 

A Memoir of Adonis and Penelope, an Exercise in 

Pronunciation 141 

List of Words commonly mispronounced 144 



RULES OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 



X. Verbs ending in ie change the ie into y, on adding ing; as, 
die, dying. 

2. Verbs ending with a single e omit the e when ing is added ; 

as, love, loving. Exceptions : dye, hoe, shoe, singe, 
swinge, tinge. 

3. All verbs ending in y, preceded by a consonant, retain the y in 

adding ing ; as, spy, spying ; but when ed is added, the y 
is changed into i ; as, spy, spied ; and when s is added, y 
is changed into ie ; as, spy, spies. 

4. Verbs ending in y preceded by another vowel, on adding ing, 

ed, or s, do not change y into i ; as, delay, delaying, de- 
layed, delays. Exceptions : lay, laid; pay, paid ; say, 
said ; stay, stayed or staid. 

5. Nouns of the singular number ending in ey form their plural by 

adding s to the singular ; as, valley, valleys. 

6. Nouns ending in y, preceded by a consonant, form their 

plural by adding es and changing y into i ; as, lady, ladies. 
This rule includes words ending in quy; as, colloquy, 
colloquies. 

7. Nouns ending in o, preceded by another vowel, form their 

plural by the addition of s ; as, cameo, cameos ; but if the 
final o is preceded by a consonant, the plural is sometimes 
formed by adding es ; as, echo, echoes. [Plurals of this class 
and others irregularly formed are given in the Dictionary.] 
8 Verbs of one syllable, ending with a single consonant, preceded 
by a single vowel [as plan], and verbs of two or more sylla- 
bles, ending in the same manner, and having the accent on 
the last syllable [as regret], double the final consonant of the 
verb on assuming an additional syllable : as, plan, planned ; 
regret, regretted ; but if a diphthong precedts iK^ last cou- 
sonant [as in join]^ or the accent is not. on vV\fe\A%\. vj^-aJoXe. 
A-s in suffer], the consonant is not dou>a\e^\ ^^> N^^^^"" 
Joined; suffer, suffered. 




KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 



<:'™r S'l^^'.?^^^ °^\^\hr™v^n "w^'*^*-^,^*^?^ 



ABBREVIATIONS 



USED IN THE DICTIONARY. 



a. stands for adjective. 



ad. 

conj. 

Fr. 

Im. 

inter. 

It. 

n. 

pi. 

P- 

prep, 
pron. 
Sp. 

V. 

Web. 
Wor. 



adverb. 

conjunction. 

French. 

Imperial. 

interjection. 

Italian. 

noun. 

plural. 

participle. 

preposition. 

pronoun. 

Spanish. 

verb. 

Webster. 

Worcester. 




PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



ABANDON. 



ACCENTUATION. 



Abilob [a-tm-Bir^, n. 






AbmU Li'biriJll. n. 
AHlot It [•Mekt^n. ad. 
AtaAuillilnlib'lD-rrihual n. 

Abllflm labiu^UDl D. 

AtariflBtl Tnb^iil'ln^ll, fl. ° 
AI»l3«l7a-b«'>l>u»i n. 



Sf':,- 



PS 



i ,^ 



ACCEPTABLENESS. 2 



„B" f 






CHUJUMl □ 



AicnBtln Lk-knz'iMil. d. iL 






Sfkjrr 



j-ati.,,., 

•^■wHiiUm ri,.ri/mallnTO. n. 
0*" Jos-l.l-lEn'H-fil n. 

"Sf^S^ [•h-K.y-fl-mm 

Acs1t4 tuTo-ini. a. 
Ae^ti [Ik's! Ili I. 
Aesth [?kniil. n. 



Am f [fVer-iil. n. 



El,lh*re, btT;^nft^^\<*4*"*^'^ 




ADVERTENCE. 



___dOD JBVtlii-t-id'iml, li. A 



MDltT ra-dBpt4'biHI-tn. 
tlaa [id4p-irihun], il 

la M-aca'dir pi. ' 

S«E3a-.«.i..^. 



Miwin, Atlpadn [adtpO' 
liotf fr lid-JS'snil.U]. ad. 

SI 



mm 



lil. [,ul-.nl^l.|>ll 1 



Adopt- !r [iS^iAl n. 



Alvulut eu lul-nii'iSQutli. 
Ad>n(ItMu [U.rcn.<l>t/iiai. 
*J~^« tad™gM[-]._o.|^ 

■a>~.a. 1^ [id-ilrM-all >. 




AGRICOLOUS. 






mhHl-vli^bl-iiB]. 



AKlml [jVfi ;iL]. a. 
AnUOitliiii (a^'/'E-kJ^un|. II. 



4MIM [t^lflei], », 
A&UU^hr-IUJn-Iil, a. 

JtMKHf Ulan (af.ralc-lVihuDl, n. 

AOrm' lUi raMi^'n-lil], JU 
AOi [irffiu, a. ^f'lAii'. i.J 






WSl;,"';" 



11 



A(1UK [ J 
AtmMj ™' 






n' lit [a-iara/lsTf n. ' 
■«j8l.MWnJ.ji^_ 



MlM nil n. A famtmca inali liquor 
f'-r — '-'— [al^luas'diinl, a. n. 






«Jj!f§,%75aii;v-"- '^ ' 



>2^ 

Anubu 1 

*Ti>iJ'hn 






ADthrnpiilaJbt tis] 

AnUin^iovuclta pof 1 



&ntlHii? T Dlil 



ARTIFICER. 



tHK rar-W-m'uhun], n. 
— iSiTiUzSi-tr], n. 



ArdWlmy [iu-krI'o-JiT. n. 
ArdulTHl [ht^-ii'li-bIL ^ 
ArchUiu- (it.l.l'».iW, 1. 

irohllwioM (nz'ki tck-iflr], n. 






AnanUni [arOm-dn], i. n. 



[u4i-uii^«n. iL 

aitillrtMl-ikLn. 
[ar-IMi-mcrllUt], n. 



l»r^'u,^'^lfla-'ril. a. 



tSSTr *?m1^ ^^ * 
Anlnl [ii-iCvai1.'i>. 

Anaiaii*[!^ flrJifl aj B 



AP HE 


R 


HN D 






1 
1 

If 


fc^ 


if" 


"^ 


v 










S,^i, 



ssass. "i 



ATTRIBUTE. 






AhtIu^ Inw'eC'tAl. Cc 

AsiHn Ij-Van]. a. [bmSe. 

Abih' il^iil n. Ai tastrnioHiI tor 
ioght 1*1], 0. Anythlis, [iQcor. 

Aq^ult[^-inEnP]k V, Ur'ineiirl IL 

ABCDit Q(-^B^ a. ^funl n. 
ABfiuttB* Q('|;iu-rth1. The dulhot, 
AnSTa!.], n . [felhn o. suthu. 

Amlia [»^ilt-«ll. a. 

• ™i», ioT^i" S.rf O-ln, «'ra ill 



LtnUr [ly-i-UiiO. n. 

i^srJi^ri '■''■'■ 

LmV IT [a-vEn'er]. n. 

"St!*?-!'"" 




...j-S.- «.ij.Ji.r. 



BASS-Ml-IEF. 



Emi MiKn. AnraiJcallmn 
Buurd [uis'itrd]. a. s. 
BuOludo [h.ib-IL-na'ilal, q. v. 



B»th7MiuJlB.ililiyi-iis],iL 
BitmAlm [lia'-ui'Ll-ii]. n. pt 



B<3 irb'^k'ir], a. 

B«" tM?J' S An BBlmiil, 

BuntlV>l o- Buu [bai], 
Bmntjfiil [&Ll'tp(iVI<li! b! 
B«Tir(l.i'.*rl,l.Tl. 






EJIi 



i£ 



i,.i 



fiOWLlNG-ALLEV. 



Bloom or (blAbn/tr), a. 

llMS"ll£ch|™l.°' '* r-oAnun. 
BJdbh fblouii n. A froilV •«» b^ 
BIowBlUlouAn- AnidHy.&W.ccd 

BlDbbor Tbhib'tr), ^ t. [minhal. 
BlndMon [hluponj, n. 

UBU'dvlH rbhin'd£r-bus\ a. 

BoboUsi Lbiibd^lnlil n 
BoHMdii^bolS'dKi boliJrtfcha]. 



iDliro IbfvViol. n. 



Bota&T'(!i;='i'.'rn!'f ' " 



iSsSi-llhl a. 



-..B" 



a;: 



BotiholB Lb^-ei'iil.ii, I^k 
Boi'TDw a Vioi'itt^l D, 
Baiponf. Bofphonu Vios 

Botlur IbnU'fa! n 
BofcrroUiim [lH>4rnt^nl. d, 

sonb tori] D • 

BotMB [b 'oml. 9. n. 
■oBiko bsoibj n t Isuit 



BDinblG Ibfijiiliikl a. Bauii bam), n 

Bond ■» limniTaJl, n. \Bolrfc\feD-' jv 



1 BIMi&al bMimUd t- 



IT Imitl. em im- BrimllBl 






toe hta (*>« v« 



BRUTALISM 

BvlbOflB. BbJbdH [hufbuL tnifbOAl, 

BfSi'seiif^' I.. 

Build bi [bdCd'c-tiii. tidbrMlal. n. 
--"taBlMiil'r"].- ■•—-'—■--■-' 



CALAMITOUS. 



m 



m 



>-bH [iHiiirlitbi], D. 

BuIhwi [Wi-lcilt'L m, lu •- 
" ^k n [Mr'nlA^r]. n, 

tmUn rWUnl n. 
taoa (Hji^X' *' 
■sfMr im Ihutf'Ateliu 
tatt« [but^, n. V. 

tui ud [bui'ttdl. a.'n. 
Bnutbu [blz'.iii-Biil, a. (tH^U' 
tin, bLidB^n, bii-aii^ln^ a. 



MMIitlllll [lulL'^JWihuiil n, 
UlBU [huh'o-lgi^]. B. Jthltt 

B,ii.,fl,V-r,il!.R«;l.lm-.*'- 







0^ s* 



OUlPlH, 










JlsnSoii tu^aia'ri-oii], n. 
OaBCDTT [wn'til'rij. n. 
4)ipbuCg iK-ral^kl a. u. 

[ Tiiipl ri^yjjinilli, kc-nnnkl,* 
SrtHU r^Ar^-ull, n. 
0«dr>iWiiI).iti. AEnln. 

(toSnlWi^nllB. a. 




CHALLbNG 



CHIKOPODIST. 



lulUUa luit' 1 



■-_"» , 



Otaflitp m [..ijviypa V 



dul-d'o) 



irtib «-'Elicrl'sh-ir], n. 



I lil'll'riy-ittoQ'rti B. 

OulEtUB IchiF^liini n. 
011114 lili Ichild^ I. 
nniit I..1. [cl,jl'H.nK]. a. 

iuTTcri'iSKl, u.' 



OhsrildTliVniril], i. n. 



ChcyulU [lirLs'aJi-' ■■ "- 



SS 





s„™.a-;3;=s.i.„ 


"~3Si'"i=:s.'Ji' 


Slf'SM.]"?™" 





COLLOQUY. 


24 COMPROMISE. 












Iri-rTr I . 


■^S"" 





Ow^tmau wrj 



2$ CONSCIENTIOUS. 



OUM^MMl (knnJed-iri'iliiiiiL 
I Co a^ iQB hl/kiin-rc'iJiun^iJLII. 




I Oona d [liM'i'lill, a. n. 



CONSCIONABLE. a6 CONVERTER. 



dd'AF ft^on [k^in-hL.J-E^rn.-L'^ikun). Oonti 



:s!SfiSfe'r-" 



cSffi;,;"[k'""-A'.i'V'' " ''"' 


f-^sffSra:! 






^■^}.ii.!.JZZi 


h|"ff :&J; 




COBIKI. [t,.n'.'.}], r, A pivij Hag 






g ij 






OoomSSt ft'lS'=li"Mml''."n 












C . , , r..- 


Oi>B'm.til. IT ii.ii.'M.vbl-n'i 






S=Siii',t:s:'4s, .. 




C™n.lUitlm [fcn„.„^i i.i'',i,o„ 








«!™5E5Sc|j 




Chmn»iT [k =1^.^.-.., to..',„.i„ 
















oSS.ii~;S'!s5f ' 


SJ^K:".|5r'"' 


S~"-gS:SSS 


Sisrgisis'i- ,. 










OosnMiKU' ■ 




Om™t lki,rf. 




ConTnUrVV:^ 



CONVERTIBLE. 



avw" tr ruan-rf'ii), dl 

Jaqvoy (ti>ii'ahi|, n. ^lufl^r^ T, 
Cspmlcu (hA.[>^nl-kBnt a. 



Wili'plA... 

OorbiU [kor'MII, n. 

Gold [kftri^l, n. A sinnti aquuidt 

OvrlOlin rk«i'dll-Ti^; Sp. pr< 




DutUJinlkii-TiPrunl, n. 



aiiiwh rUri, n. v. 

Conn'rrU lor [koun'sil-ail, d. Tl 



CnunBrjktit' 1 1^ A dip I 






n IMUqu [kii-t£l 
Orodwt [tri'slii 
Mqilet [lird-lil 



■13 



^"X^^: i^'^°^'°- [^ 



KKUfkr 
. CbUb llill'htbi. 






CrlminU [k, u/n!alj a. n 



DEBATABLE. 


30 DELLAN 


lit 




Ei" ^ 



S »p, 






1. 












DEL BERA OR 3 DESP EFUL. 









HESPONDER. 32 DILICKNCI 



p^ i-.; 






DntoH lile-vi-ri'i n. 



^i 



libitga [df-a-bficil.n.slnir. andiil. 









-lo-shcln. 



££«^V (SmSSli-sI), n. 

MptmiiMTdmialinjii. I. 

IHlIHid r dlE-kltd^ a. v' 

' KSJgjJf tdli-zJrn'irl B. 

WHipll [dlt-^an. n, V. '' 

DfaeoDM* tili^"'^ >. 
DlKmiTiI [dlilLOtin, n. V, 
DlMlttl'i l li Idls-kM^i). B. 

pans, dt^kre-LUMi-^. n- [H 

NKnalniiJar ^ll^krim^n-ll-ir], 

mitrMoi' nil (aii-KTis'foLii, 1. 









Hrtlnct E 



DUlru? fd ill a lb 
DiatrlbnCa is-c 

DiRuiig n. 



DRUNKARD. 






'DnmiUt [il^'ji-bl], a. 






KENNESS. 35 ECSTATIC. 



e„„,..„. 






BujiUclW [ 









Tl 1 






Ur [e-.luy44-rli-4r], n. E)ic[n:li tl^l'rr&n, n. 

Kr-ijusl, n. ' EllimilM IcIVirnns]. n. 

U^.tkiViuil. 1 Elglll J.I'nM, 1- n- 

[cE'M:a-sil d. EiTil. Euuvi of f^-li-il. 

I (cf ICihen.il, n. EllBlbiMtj |l-i .|,-l.]l'iiii]. n. 

■flijfj.n. tpt. EJlmlllJ.W l.-l.^i-i.-lEl,., 

■ rir.B(l\i^m). n. EOirrU, EllqnulDD [> -li-k-.i'sliuci, 

[I'Rntl.ii. Bllifm ' ■' - ■ 






£AClATION. 37 ENTOZOOM. 

n f H-na ^omiUaT [en touirtijl K. .. 

-V liUi-pe'iliiJ, o. 


















\-'r 



ENTRAII^ 


" ■•'"'•■•E 




M^ "^ 




PSbi 


"1. 


L 


>f 




1 


1 


- 


r^i ■^-^ 




Sa- 


l 






FSf," 






^ 




bi 













'■cr I 



isftf-" > 



t 






1., 



?^J\ 



EXOGAMOUS. 



^S^"*^"' 



lUmfirlA'L-icnd'bl.ii. " | 
' "bli [cks-tEiKJI-lil], >. I 

r IctWfds'trl, n. i 

Ilia « Jeli-sllnB'^Mil 
rtor tf Ion ar [EhE-tor^lnui-er], n^ 



■IH rci'nilnl, n. Fabnurr [reViciKWIJ. n 

aun lainWi, >■ Fk'iuuI aii rrs^uiiiLjil 

udt tn ^iSaal'l-slzni), n FhUi [ro'lil 1, .i. 






art n. Th. p>i,:.^ or p.ii„itc : ."->.— rL^; . 



i-Ffti a.n,v. [n.jid^v. p*roolot»B [fe-"^''""'' 
•r(ISrt*ir,fec'(*til pMrrt[fe^rt1 



., .- ., „yr.TJn.». ' 

uh^-S'b&l n. Farrn^au rre-iaMkn-i 

■ ■ ■ 11. nf FMlifiTrc'nt.ll n. A r 

, n.ii], I. FntUUy [»r-iUn ril n. 

lu^f^'i'hun.a-bll. a. n. Fault ircAia v'^. A 



' ai 









roitnlght [(nnSmi ii. 



liuBtU r 



S^f^" 



rA ■>! 






GALOP. 


E. 


t^^^'i "- 


r j^ 


au'vHin 








!=»*■ ^ 


SJil 


ISl"^^ 






oSi"' i 


Si.t,' « 


















0^'*' 0- 




sr„. 






a« tnl 




O.Smn 






l&t"- 


OmBM n ilk. 


sir/" ■" 


s/- 


i? * 


-'Mll J 




„„ L ' -,„ 


iSJ'u "^ 




i§rf" •^'' 


Tr ~ 


»T1 


SLi'-^ 


li" 



HETEROPATHY. 



^i?^' 


B«lHlt«al 




Imp i^lli 


K^fe"-!:;';' 


S^ 


SSSSKSei],:, """ 


iSS'niullf 














''S^SStw.., 


iSii' 


•sa-as ,.,.„.„,, 








^^iissSis 


™| 


Blfe^- 


gi 


«im«Ifl^a«],n. 


la'S-' 


^gs" 


|ojtMry : 






ff^Cr"'" 


lil's 




^^:.. 


S 




^ 


. J^ mdSpi"n''!'-''-nl<-lV" 






to Tlu-pir'jl^liX i. 






^pparbaHu [hr-pirtHiiail. v. 

BrpsMi riiT.pab'ollt, a.' U n. 

BrpoEkimdrUi Ihlp^kintMrUll 

BrpoUiaiui pii-jKiyc-iiaiiii. 
iHypothHli [ID'polli'ejIi], n. Mf 
BrpoOwUc [hI-p<nh«Tk]. 1. 
Imitate [iili-x^i-al, D, ■ 



UlejltLi [.i-ri'll-br], n, > 



ISmuiii |.?.i,v™i. 






DlnBTloiu Ul-liis^ri-iis], •. 



lUBECILITV. 









'•-=^-l,%,.j.;S, 






i^S^TcH'X, S'°T"^°^ * 



^pBlmSpo.l'iSiiajiyliol. n. 



I INDOUITABLE. 

lutptor [tii-Kp^«rrD. 



AM* iiii.li;&i'ii-l^]. a. Id. 

iatfTbjKig*nHS). •. .4 n 

i™1iii-ton^iji,io-ui],ii. 



It^lai;»bl« pn-dB-bll-ga'liI]. a. 
bdlUUa [IMcl14il], 0. 

IDAnni* ha^cnt'Ar In^enVtr]; 
lata [In'deksl. "■ Inluu- -' 
ladU-tAbu' [in^lmb'irl, 



SiSsSr 



?:?. 



Inilioiioiu [in-iti'iin.iisl, =. 
IiiiUnu.Bilii rm.Lliu-tid'iliitnt n 
iQlUgillCr lLii-(l:K'[ii-tf], II 



(ti.iWr5'«l, n. rem. \lnaomWri» M>.x-to£<^^g^;:__ 



TSi£?ii^"^Li°.KTi.iL. 

iB'tiillHl ul [Inlel-lckfil-^], 1. 



Interior lly (In-te-ri-ort-n]. n, 
toUmnlf l«lVLin..i-iDjt'en^ a. n. 



IntndDctiDa llii-iro-^iibMiun], c 









Ulm £» nPynn-ta 



fel"'Tlw.td of 









j'j/r 



(lt»Ji'di«kllp].ii. 












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Xog-in hHdlloK'tr-lieit], n. 
XoUipap Tlot^-pgp], 0. 

"Si" 



lA4Uittr [iD-lnu'l-tl], CL. 

Low ('""l^' I^H' Pl 
T_^ riDl'al-lll. iii 



£3.SS't"!il 

■tar [i^'iiiUiirR ~ 
V n [iiH4li«li^6r41> «• 



l!|oSTJ 

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l^*?! ""a solu on o! ■ilcSa 1 
LyMh iffln.li. 
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HAKGAR1T2. 






._ ^.ji'ilii-iLn. I iimiitliiTnun'i-lLn.n, V. ' 

■Dw^l it [mu-net^f, a. Uu'Bgs ■!>]• [,,y.i„'a.j-t-hl\ a. 

■E^nmiH rnl^nH-iz], I, Uuugnnut (:nan':ij-nicii|], n. 

■dillUat Iiug-DlPi-KBt], n. 'll^nBa [iTLiin-.i.tfl, n. 
Ib^ilgnH CiWnUWm], n. UADdunni (iM.LTi-dn'jnitil, n. 

Kl^Uv^e'nlS^f-irl n. ' UuduU |itLr,i,.,Ui-r«n']. a- •• 
■oSullaawm [nBg-nlVikkociuJ.n. , HsadlUi lin-i^i'il.-lil], a. 

EEwfl i [uBK'iil-tndl n- I MmJ uUh t.ri->"'J'>lm|. -. 

£^li^r>Cd^libmfaHi [mS- Huh [i4'^]/'n. pl.^_^ 

Kw^sssr.. i^gSiE'"" " 

iSSKj! 



lObtill. V. n! Aimer r a bag com- ! Mulioi '[Mi"-i''i'.iV-"i], ^, 



biBMll' Itlli ^ndn-tin'Ji-bl], 



HUM^, H^ianTB [i^-n^vtll.' 




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H did. ^ c-cU], £3 

UHiKlmBi [mir'iJiatniil, n 



met htre.htr-. plwi.T' 



Idniao fBiEkHliJ'iiilL n 









lnniwla.'1-iij. n. 

IB liDCD-delribi) Mull- 

•Om liiien'iliun-g-U), i. 



fi^?[<i1a1'taVl''i.. 
irdaat Bbia Imb'ilianT-i'hl]. ■ 

Mriii r [nu'iiiMi-ii'l, n. 



HlUuKlll 












»■ fnK ^'^ '" 



. few DM. Hilda i.VAf,! 

[Mi"- 



■■t>iDTnUA''«r|. .. 

HnnliDiliro.oi^t-iliL 
VnoralclD [nQ-ralnlkla. 
Hn^nl IB [nil'iral-Ul. 






SISS^'" 



H^ IW IniSSni], If^' "^ 

HdiuiUc fm'-Miji'l'ik]. I 

If DmenclAtDM | iLo'iiicn-kUtilrl, n. 

NBiia«crtpl[a...i'<le..kriplfta I 
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V y\ ^ 



NUDE. 65 OF. 


STSn 


»™ro« [„,y,„^.„,^ ^ 


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sii^frlSf?"* 




M^liiiEni'^ I'f tf L. „a Jjhi: 




Humti BW lnm..',.^]:n. 


HnMu™ l^n'-uAhTu"!^!' 


Mamgrml Inilm'Jir .111. u. 




Hrmpii I11111XI. IV 







i 



Obinm C I 

Hi las' 1 

CEnJ I 



OiUb' [D^UrlT n See HaiOrr 



sftr 



la uortii'-iUUilt-lrl, iL 

KIE.'WSK-'- 




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s?p„-^sr'°° 




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sssipiris 




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PERIPHRASIS. 

rtrtplMlU fpe riPra-siiJ, n. 



PHTHISIC 



r^vui \-i' 






Psnlif •no«'k',?^i'E.1'™i_ ,, 









'^:^J^tii 



Tiriplnblt [lS.-?|S'r»"iS i.'' 
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—"•Jon « [nc tUi'uB- 

'lis*"' 






II 






nua [Ain-liu'm&Ilh ■- 



SS. 



PhUuthrsj^Ic bJ rm.aii.Ih pU.aK' 
FUUntlinplA in Oi -ut >. 
pblllpp [(A 






". 4>k, 4U , nK met, thCrc. 






P^3u] [r n 

PIJISMCT U 

FtltU lUT [u 

puts [p ' 1] 



sr^ n«_ 
















^^ r 



ra 






nom [pKT-iKiMuml n. 

adnirpoii^n-Sri^in. 



Porridcfi ni"r^]> h. 

PerUl Ii.an'.ill. a. n 
»DrtciilUi||...n-l<ul'li,}.n. 






roHlblllty Wk'-V'''-"!' °- 






,S»^ 



m\p PropHOalty [E'nv.ficp'si'tr|,'ii 

™ (j r fro kuT E[pn)Pc-lrt. .. 

kuod 1 Fro li'tf III [prorrf-csl. n. 

T 1 la Fni InqiiltT [pio-plnE^M-Hl* 

ib' ' 11 Pro ^iwr [^jio-M-il-tajf .. 

Jit oBb> li 1 Pr UoMllilo-pWusl,"- 

ally n- ]. Pr pMal [iffo-iiOi-jIl r. 

■I' or [n ei 1 Pro DdUm ClTiTi-o-il'shuBl I. 

ar[ii ftr Pro rioUij fcru-pH-c-uriE* 

H.07 InnlJld^ -sil Pro rirtor'[pn,-pri'M«).i;' 

uT ptB'im. Propri«W [pr» prt'c.H), n, 

lUotero; En, ftMrioWiS'Tll »- 

•xy >n PrtPKoBlimi [ll^^l^e'nl-um]. 0. 






PROTUBERANCE. 75 QUADRUPLE. 



frotHtnrulv [[]n>-tybir-uu1. el 



TniBtUg Ipic^Hiclltil, a. A bull: 
Fnmlc [pfiis'iili. uioAi'ilcl. •. 



PDin><™l [liK-cr'gii^i.lJI, I, 
Pngiaui [i.ri'jit-iim], iL 

PUnilSrtpuVtMr], •- 
PiullH [pumli, ptfrnlil, a. 
PuBp Un IpumpliEd], D. 



LpuQEkt'yu^. pudifliPjAf ], 

Pupil [|..i'j5ri. n. 
rorcliiH [p&'cUi], n. v. 
FiracUar Tpd-!tMflii1, a, 
Pnrlfr tiii-riSr]. V. 
Po'TiUB iH [□O'rtlBDjBql, n. 
Fulglll' a l^-MiftiX n, 
JkWi [(>tiT.ft n. V, 

FBTpBit {p£t^l1]» IL t, 

FnrpnH fpfa'puii; o. .. 

FiimLt^^r4i]in» n. 
FonlBt [pVnT.lEntl, I. 

FuUlABbnoiu ^l.sU-luinuHiaf ib 



LBmoMDa Tpli-lw'f 



gssssss 



A «T (liwak'4i-ll. n. 
[mill (kwod-iw^KU. n. 

mm Ifcwodiooi/l. n. 






3d£i1u [kwori-fl-iil. n, 
QualitT jCwQl^-Hi n. 

QouiduT |ltanui><U^ri. bwWJji-rEX 

Qiiuitdtr [Xwcm^-in, n- 



Ijuuniliiii hi-i-iti'ni'aiil; ii 



mcb ■bla [k-Fnslr'dMl a 




"U\* 






" '■■'i- (no, t^q^ii, ^_n 



lUlDDDt Irn'ir.n'lir], 

lK.'5'aSB' 



RANUNCULACE^. 77 



BipOElEr In-pu'i'tll. a, 

Ripiiuiits rnrs-ci-ra n 

BipUUM [Fin-litl.n, AmlcEnl. 
Eipld IW |r»^piift-lil n. 
fL&plU [rap^nj. IL 

EAptnrani [Tapi'yoDT'US. npc'Tir- 

KAtlonjlk [rultlld-iLM^p ra^hi-a-lUl 
Jtv&mti In Iraih^iiMl-Ii]. V. 
Bm-.! liif [r.J'd-Lns:l n. "" 



RMilAhri,... 
Il>!3^B [re'aMiiiii n. 
BUP (T [>«p'ar1. n. 



uUlltluil Ire-LlKti.lr 



REFECTION. 



,:iliu... 

"""■,lBs3{- 



SkoGkP lim [flT-ul'lek- 



i'ij.a 



_^X-£=^ 



REQUIBABLE. 79 



BxnlnbU [n^ -twl.'.-l.ll. J. 
BwinliV mal [rc-kwi/uiern] 




RIDICULOUS. 

WSJil Hill rni'yual. I 

Bljpltar lill/irl. n. One wba ■ 

XLt^ Or IH-Iii-Un B. 

Eotnul [tO-bu itn. ^ 
Bnchit Irocli'df a. 



^Jl^^'/'^-y'Si^nJ. 



■--* & [iiFliJ ad 






SABBATARIAN. 8 


SAVIOUR. 






s 






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ii-ba-n' 


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SEARCHER-- 



niUalt [A iVI 









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SEASONABLE 



SETACEOUS. 



fnlory J.r-t:*'n.-iLf s, 

liullllt IscJi'sihl), ». 
dffBMlia] [wnnyi^'n-all, ^. 



inln. 






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S^M <V 1. 

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■Up "[iS/Srlln."' 
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8 STYLE 


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SUPERNAL 90 SYNOPSIS 





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SynUm Isirrtaksi a. 

Srnilualj [sinUc^i], n. I 



, tei-^^^^ 



\S\i 




TuuiBT [raii'B-]4r1. n. 






^-^ 







"MjflitniiaiFt.-, g.1 



I^nnr [ttic'er-Ji], a. 

4 I ihrfi. n. Ilii«>a Ilhivi], p 

m Ur [tbWH-lll Id. 



? bua [thinltdil. •. 



Ttarin [Thil^l. 4d~. 

ThrlR hiiim iThririhia], s. 

tlirvu [llifanu]. q- v- 
Thnxlls ilhci^i v. 
nnub llSsw, iVad (Mp. 
TAmU IthruihT, ii. 



TIcdDUmimix tti 






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B [„Vl,al 






r..,n], V. 



or [wl'dE-lf-fa], 0, 



tmBtlonpiln. 

?sjfil?Sia.i,» 



Ii^luT llupTJi-ri], I. 

TDTBUhl tlor-nS'dej^ IL TVBUdOB 









^^JMi^'P'^' '■ 






TREPIDATION. 



-.—-.ais-isss'as 






nuqnlii Ilraia-pEnnd. ■■ J 
rnpH IDi'Cviq. a. f 

rnvsl er (I'D^'cWil n. OnT* 






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I( ««. ui t.Fi.i nen 1.W 1^^' 




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DdcuDIMr [d-dom'c-tli] n 



m in [O^WMfl, K 
1 Unrin'yuo-iinil.n. 

OllCad It lu-nTfcd-in aS. 



«: 






UiDlirliiL [um^if nil a. 



nnutaswby [il raii-a^ii-jiC]» B« 



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UUIUj [iMiti 11). n, ' 



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V4BV141H [wB^'iE-Ubl. A. 

VAgnncrlvo'sran-^l, n. 
V«o« ly (y5k?ll], til 
vilDl Ijr [vMilad. 
VllWUcHpfT [viU-dLkJij 



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Yimchy [vfr-TBB^-tlL d. 
Tutsi M [TtrWUtl. n. 

T«rtirt I.fi'dikl), n, 

T^aNai I>er-i fi-kfiliiuil b. 



V«lcW«_[;^-Mi',i.l*,ii. 
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fe »*t tnt. *™, 4sfc. ^ 1 ni£.iii«,th 



S VISIONARY. 

TlcUdtJla [vlS'iTtmd), n. 
Tlotto la Ivilrtim-liJ V. 
Tlctorloia tvlt-lCK-u.t a. 
VWVit r Wtlo-nl n, 
¥llrt™ii [^Itlil, n jH. 

TffU UH [n^Jau], n. 
vulnoBi r riniHual. ■• 

TlneSla [ni/sMin, ». [bL 

TlieallDn [vtirliuJuai'L p- TlbeiQ^ 



I Cit-rrMl n. TIhb 
^Ktt (vi^^ nil. n. 

— 'iS;'f 



VISITATION. 99 WEAPON 






VWM 


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WONDERFUL. 



■•»««■ ["iiii'riftt]. °. 



t -WlUtlirt [vflrA-trl ad. 
'WUHnatldi I>iiii1uii-i: 



-Wloi* don Chir'au.^J, o 
wS'iJir'lllit-'Or-il^.''' 



WONDROU 









wSSfU °^ 










MEASURES. 

— • — 

A MeMmre is a unit fixed bv law or custom as a standard in estimating 
quantity. The unit may be used in measuring value, extension, time, weight, 
or any other quantity. 

MONEY. 

Money Ls the commodity adopted to serve as the measure of value of all 
other commodities. 

Coin is metal stamped with a die to give it a legal, fixed value, for the 
purpose of circulating as money. Coins consist of gold, silver, copper, and 
nickel. 

UNITED States Money. 

The currency of the United States is decimal currency, and is sometimes 
called Federal Money, 

TABLE. 

10 mills (m.) make i cent (ct ). 

xo cents " i dime (d.). 

lo dimes " i dollar ($). 

lo dollars " x eagle. 

The dollar and the cent only are usually used in naming quantities; 
dimes and cents being named as cents, eagles and dollars as dollars. The 
mill is not coined. 

The pold coins are the double-eagle, eagle, hsdf-eagle, quarter-eagle, 
three-doTleu-, and one-dollar pieces. 

The silver coins are the dollar, half-dollar, quarter-dollar, twenty-cent, 
and ten-cent pieces. 

The nickel coins are the five-cent and three-cent pieces. 

The bronze coin is the one-cent piece. 

The trade dollar is designed solely for purposes of commerce. 

Government Standard. — By Act of Congress, Jan. x8, 1837, all gold and 
silver coins must consist of 9 parts (.900) pure metal, and x part (.100) alloy. 
The alloy for gold must consist of equal parts of silver and copper, and the 
alloy for silver of pure copper. 

The nickel coins are 75 parts copper and 25 parts nickel. 

Canada Money. 

The currency of the Dominion of Canada is decimal, and the denomina- 
tions are the same as those of the United States Money. The currency was 
made uniform July i, 187X. 

The ffold coins used are the British soverevgyv «\<i Via3i-»a»*«sJ«e^-'> -w=s<Ssv 

The silver cSns aJe tYxe ^ttv-WTv^A^^^c^-^^'^sf^^ ^'^-^'^^ *^ 
cent pieces. The twenty -cent p\ece \s xvo Vso!%,ex xnaas.- 
The bronze coin is the cent. 



I -= 4 

Farthings are generally expressed as fractions of a penny. 

The oldy^, the original abbreviation for shillings, was fonnerly written 
between shillings and pence, and d., tlie abbreviation for pence, was omitted. 
Thus, 2 s. 6d. was written "zft. A straight line is now used in place of theyj 
and shillings are written on the left of it and pence on the right. Thus, 
2/6, 10/3, etc. 

T\\&gold coins are the sovereign (= £.x) and half-sovereini (■« zos.). 

The silver coins are the crown, half-crown, florin, shiuing, six*peimy, 
four-penny, and three-penny pieces. 

Tne copper and bronze coins are the penny, half-penny, and farthins^. 

The guinea (= 21 s.) and the half-guinea {= los. 6d. sterlii^) are ola gold 
coins, and are no longer coined. 

The pound is worth $4.86j4. 

The shilling is worth io.24^. 

French Money. 

The currency of France is decimal. The franc is the unit, and is worth 
19. 3 cents. 

TABLE. 

zo millimes (m.) make i centime fc). 

10 centimes " x decime (d.). 

zo decimes " z franc (fr.). 

EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

fr. d. C. m. 

I = zo = zoo = zooo 

1 s= zo = zoo 

Z = 10 

The gold coins are the forty-franc, twenty-franc, ten-franc, and 
pieces. 

The silver coins are the five-franc, two-franc, and one-franc 
the fifty-centime and twenty-centime pieces. 

The bronze coins are the ten-centime, five-centime, two-cen* 
centime pieces. 

German Money. 
x(x3 pfenntg-e (Pf. ) make x maxk V!BM.\ 
The mark (or reichsmark) is worth 83.8 cents. 



MEASURES. 



105 



MEASURES OF EXTENSION. 

Bxtimrion has three dimensions— length, breadth, and thickness. 

A Line has only one dimension — length. 

A Bnrfaca has two dimensions— length and breadth. 

A Solid has three dimensions— length, breadth, and thickness. 



LONG OR LINEAR MEASURE. 

The unit of linear meas- 



} 



xa hiches(in.) 

3 feet. 

55i yards, or 
i6yi feet 
40 rods 

8 furlongs 



mi. 

X 



(ft), 
(yd.). 

(rd.). 

(fur.), 
(nu.) 



in. 
63360 

IS 

la 



Long MeMoro is used in measuring distances, 
ure is usually the yard, or the foot 

TABLE. 

make x foot . . 
" X yard 

" X rod. . 

" X furlong 
" I mile . 

EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

rd. yd. ft. 

320 = 1760 = 5a8o 

X = 5J< = x6% 

I = 3 

X 

The following are also used :— 

3 barleycorns make x inch, used by shoemakers. 

.. s..^i..o •• « tianri fused m measuring the height of 

4mches. . » ^^a^Hhorses directly over the forefeet 

9 inches. . " x span. 

3 feet. . . " X pace. 

6 feet ... " X fathom, used in measuring depths at sea. 

For the purpose of measuring cloth the yard is divided into ha 
fourths, eighths, and sixteenths. 

SURVEYORS' LINEAR MEASURE. 

A Ghinter's dudn, used by land surveyors, is 4 rods or 66 feet lonf 
consists of xoo links. 

TABLE. 

7.9a inches (in.) make x link 

35 links 

4 rods, or*! 
66 feet 
80 chains 

EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

mi. ch. rd. L in. 

X = 80 = 320 «» 8000 = 63360 

I = 4 = xoo = 79a 

I a as = 198 

X = 7.9a 

The denomination rods is seldom used in chain measure, 
being taken in chains and links. 

A Square is a figure havvtvR tout ecy^NiaV ^>^ 'f^"^S^\^' 
ArS is the space or surtace "vncXuAftd. vrcCcisv «cc>j ^fi^NCO^ 

of a square, of a field, of a boat A, cxc. 



'} 



«.). 
X rod (rd.). 

X chain (ch.). 

X mile (mL). 



MEASURES. 



Sqiuuns lfMmr« is used in computing areas ; as of land, boards* pain^ 

gt plastering, paving, etc 

TABLE. 

144 square inches (sq. in.) make x square foot (sq. ft.L 
9 •• feet. ... •• X " yard(sq.yd.L 
30% •• yards ... " x "rod (sq. rd.). 
160 " rods ... " X acre . . (A.). 
640 acres " x square mite (sq. mL). 

EQUIVALENT TABLE. 
sq. mi. A. sq. rd. sq. yd. sq. ft. sq. in. 

I =: 640 » X03400 = 3097600 <=» 37878400 « 40x4489600 
X B 160 = 4840 = 43560 « 6070640 
X = 30j< - 079% " 99004 

X =. 9 "^ xago 

I s X44 

Workmen estimate as follows : — 
Glazing and stone-cutting, by the square foot 

Paintii^, plastering, paving, ceiling, and paper-hanging, by the square 
3rard. 

Flooring, partitioning, roofing, slating, and tiling, by the square of xoo 
square feet 

SURVEYORS' SQUARE MEASURE. 

This measure is used by surveyors in computing the area or contents of 
land. 

TABLE. 

6as square links (sq. 1.) . . . make x pole . . . (P.). 

16 poles " I square chain (sq. ch.). 

10 square chains " i acre . . . (A.). 

640 acres " x square mile (sq. mL). 

36 square miles (6 miles square) " i township . (Tpi). 

EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

Tp. sq. mL A. sq. ch. P. sq. I. 

I = 36 = 33040 = 230400 = 3686400 = 3304000000 

X = 640 = 6400 = 103400 = 64000000 

X = xo = 160 = xooooo 

I — z6 = xoooo 

I =■ 635 

A square mile of land is also called a section. 

Canal and railroad engineers commonly use an engineers' chain, w. 
consists of 100 links, each x foot long. 

The contents of land are commonly estimated in scjuare miles, acres 
hundredths ; the denon^nation rood is rapidly going into disuse. 

CUBIC MEASURE. 

A Onbe b a body having six equal square sides or feces. 
The cubic or solid contents of a Dody axe found by multiplying ' 
breadth, and thickness together. 

OaUe Meamrs, also ouled solid measure, is used in compu 
tents of timber, wood, stone, etc 

TABLB. 
■r7aff cub/cinches (cu. in.) . . maVe 1 cu\s\ctooX . V 

37 " feet *• X cu\i\cv^ta. v 

z6 " «• * ' ' . •* X cotdtooX. . - 



MEASURES. 107 



A cubic vard of earth is called a load. 

A pile of wood 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 4 feet high, contains i cord ; 
and a cord foot is z foot in length of such a pile. 

A perch of stone or of masonry is 16^ feet long, 1% feet wide, and x foot 
high, and contains 34^ cubic feet. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

Capacity signifies extent of space. 

Meararei or Capacity are all cubic measures, but solidity and capacity 
are referred to different units, as will be seen by comparing the tables. 

Measures of capacity are subdivided into two classes, measures of liquids 
and measures of dry substances. 

LIQUID OR WINE MEASURE. 
Liquid Ifaamr* is used in measuring liquors, molasses, water, etc. The 
unit is the gallon. TABLE 

4 gills (gi.) make z pint . . (pt.|. 

2 pints "I quart . (qt.). 

4 quarts " i gallon . (gaLl. 

3x}i gallons " i barrel . (bbl.). 

4 lSon'?°'}- • • • " X hogshead (hhd.y. 

EQUIVALENT TABLE, 

hhd. bbl. gaL qt pt gi. 

X = 3 e* 63 = 25a = 504 = aox6 

I = 3«J< = 126 = 252 -= X008 

I = 4 = 8 = 32 

1=2= 8 

1 = 4 
The following denominations are also m use : — 

43 gallons make z tierce. 

r^X^'*""'} • • • • " ipIp«orbu«. 

The denominations barrel and hogshead are used in estimating tiie 
capacity of cisterns, reservoirs, vats, etc. In Massachusetts the bairel is 
estimated at 33 gallons. The tierce, hogshead, pipe, butt, and tun arelalso the 
names of casks, and do not express any fixed or definite measures. They 
are usually gauged, and have their capacities in gallons marked on them. 

BEER MEASURE. 
Bear Meanm is a species of liquid measure used in measuring beer, ale^ 
and milk. The unit is the gallon. 

TABLE. 

3 pints (pt.) make i quart . (qt.). 

4 quarts " z gallon . (gaL). 

36 gallons " z barrel . (bbL). 

sJ^SnoS'^'} • • • • " I hogshead (hhd.). 

EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

hhd. \)b\. \5?\. Qjw. V^ 

"*^ ~ *"==•» 
This measure is not a statvdaxA, axv^ ^s "'^^'^'^ ^ 



T^ *-..«!^^vv««»«6sa«^ 



pk. qt. 

4 - 3'-' = 
I = 8 =- 


pt. 
64 
16 


I =- 


2 


WEIGHTS. 





bu. 



eij^t is the measure of the quantity of ni.itter a body contains^ ( 
i by the force of gravity. Weiyhinjj consists in comparing the 
some conventional standard. Tnrcc scales of weight are used i; 
:d States ; namely, Troy, Avoirdupois, and Apotheccuics*. 

Troy weight. 

oy Weight is sometimes called goldsmith's weight. It is us< 
ling golJ, silver, and jewels ; in philosophical experiments, and g 
fhere great accuracy is required. The unit is the pound. 

TABLE. 

34 grains (gr.) . . make i pennyweight (pwt.) or (dwt*)L 
9o pennyweights . " i ounce . . (oz.). 
13 ounces .... " i pound . . (lb.). 

EQUIVALENT TABLE, 
lb. OZ. pwt. gr. 

X = X2 = 240 = 5760 
I = 20 = 480 
I = 24 

Avoirdupois weight. 
rolrdiqpoll Wtigilt is used for all ordinary purposes. The unit i 



MEASURES. 



ffllJ^JiJ-I^S 









vj ounces . 


. . . • " I pound 
KOUIVALENT TABLH. 


(lb.)or(a>). 


lb. 


oz. dr. sc. 


ar. 


I = 


12 = 96 = 288 == 
I = 8 = 24 ^ 
I = 3 - 


5760 

480 

60 




X = 


20 



APOTHECARIES* FLUID MEASURE. 

e measures for fluids, as adopted by apothecaries in the United St 
used in compounding medicmes, are given in the following table: 



TABLE. 




60 minims (HI ) . . . make x fluid drachm 


(f3)- 


8 fluid drachms . . " i fluid ounce 


(fj). 

(0.). 


16 fluid ounces ... " i pint . . 


8 pints " z gallon . . 


(Cong.). 


EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

Cong. 0. f5 f3 ''U. 

I B 8 = Z28 = 2048 — 61440 

X = x6 = xs8 = 7680 

I = 8 = 480 

X = 60 





Diamond Weight. 

Wdldlt is used in weicrhincr nr<>r{nii« ctnn^c 



MEASURES. Ill 



EQUIVALENT TABLE. 

]nr. mo. wk. da. h. min. sec. 

. « -2 =1/365 = 8760 =- 525600 = 31536000 

\366 = 8684 = 527040 = 31023400 

X — 7 = 168 = X0080 = 604800 

X = 24 = M40 = 86400 

I = 60 B= 3600 

X = 60 

In most business transactions 30 days are called x month. The civil day 
begins and ends at 12 o'clock, midnight The astronomical day^ used by 
astronomers in dating events, begins and ends at la o'clock, noon. The 
civil year is composed of civil days. 

Bissextile or Leap Year. 

The period of time required by the sun to pass from one vernal equinox 
to another, called the vernal or tropical year, is 365 da. 5 h. 48 min. 49.7 sec 
This is the true year, and it exceeds the common year by 5 h. 48 min. 40.4 sec. 

If 365 days be reckoned as i year, the time lost in the calendar will be. 

In I year, 5 h. 48 min. 46.4 sec. ; in 4 years, 23 h. xs+ min. 

The time thus lost in 4 years will lack only 44 min. about of x entire day. 
Hence, if every fourth year be reckoned as leap year, the time^t»«df in the 
calendar will be, 

In 4 years, 44 min. about ; in 100 years (= 25 X 4 yr.) 18 h. 37 oin. about 

The time thus gained in xoo years will lack onlv 5 h. 22 min. 50 sec of i 
day. Hence, if every fourth year be reckoned as leap year, the centennial 
years excepted, the time lost m the calendar will be. 

In xoo years, 5 h. aa min. ; in 400 years, ax h. 31 min. 

The time thus lost in 400 years lacks only 2 h. 29 min. of x day. Hence, 
if every fourth year be reckoned as leap year, 3 of every 4 centennial years 
excepted, the tmie gained in the calendar will be. 

In 400 years, 2 h. 28 mhi. about ; in 4000 years, 24 h. about. 

The followii^ rules will, therefore, render the calendar correct to within 
I day, for a period (rf'4000 years: — 

I. Every year that is exactly divisible by 4 is a leap year, centennial years 
excepted. 

I I. Every centennial year that is exactly divisible by 400 is a leap year. 

Julius Caesar, the Roman Emperor, decreed that the year should consist 
of 365 days 6 hours ; that the 6 hours should be disregarded for 3 succes- 
sive years, and an entire day be added to every fourth year. This day was 
inserted in the calendar between the 24th and 25th days of February, and is 
called the intercalary day. As the Romans counted the days backward 
from the first day of the following month, the 24th of February was called by 
them sexto caUndas Martii (the sixth before the calends of March). The 
intercalary day which followed this was called bis-sexto caUndas Martii. 
hence the name bissextile. 

In 1582 the error in the calendar as established by Julius Caesar had in* 
creasedf to 10 days. To correct this error^ Po^e Gte^nj d«.c«ftA *as. y^ 
entire days should be stt\Otetv?xom>L\vt c^«ve«w.^sA^^'^'t«os4^'3Siss«s»!*. 

the 3d day of October, iSBji, sYvo>AA.\>t \>c«i i.«;C^- vv.rcv«. c!^s«!v'ft»se-'S"*^^?2u 

The yLx as estabMved bv ^>^Vi^^^?^ ^\l?^tr^«^^^'='«^ ^'^''^ 
yeaf, and the period ol t\meV>HV\t>^vtw.V^^^^^"^'^=*^ 
B. C. to 1583. Is catted Ibe ^%dxan, Period. 



7 



**£«&!/£' ■^"■sS-S'j.'^^.Z"™ 

•ff^rtts ; «c. The unit is the itrgrw. 

Mfnuics o'fte purth'j drcnmrerenK ore called gengnphlc or luutlci 
lam Inm wblch a ^laa oi -piper U fnldcd. 



MEASURES. 113 

FRENCH STANDARDS 

ae French standard linear unit is the mitre. 

he French standard unit of area is the arv, which is a unit zo metres 
re. and contains 100 square metres. 

'he French standard unit of solidity and capacity is the litre, which is 
cube of the tenth part of the metre. 

Standard of Weight. 

The French Standard unit of weight is the gramme^ which is determined 

follows : — The weight in vacuum of a cubic decimetre or litre of distilled 

Iter, at its maximum density, was called a kilogramme^ and the thousandth 

ut of this was called a gramme, and was declared to be the unit of weight. 

NOMENCLATURE OF THE TABLES. 

The tables are on a decimal scale. The names of the multiples being 
brmed by employing the prefixes deka (ten), hecto (hundred), kilo (thousand), 
and myria (ten thousand), taken from the Greek numerals ; and the names 
of the divisors by employmg the prefixes deci (tenth), cm/>' (hundredth), mUi 
(thousandth), from the Latin numerals. 

FRENCH LINEAR MEASURE. 
TABLE. 

10 millimetres make x centimetre. 

10 centimetres " x decimetre. 

xo decimetres " z metre. 

zo metres " z decametre. 

10 decametres " x hectometre. 

10 hectometres " z kilometre. 

xo kilometres " x myriametre. 

The metre is equal to 39.3665 inches, the standard rod of brass on which 
the former is measured beimg at 32" Fahrenheit, at 6a°. 

French square measure. 

TABLE. 

xoo square metres or centiires (zo metres square) make z are. 
zoo ares (zo ares square) *• " x hectare. 

FRENCH Liquid and dry measure. 

TABLE. 

zo decilitres make z litre. 

10 litres " X decalitre. 

zo decalitres " x hectolitre. 

zo hectolitres " i kilolitre. 

A litre is equal to 61.53394 cubic inches, or x.06553 quarts of a U. S. liqtiid 
gallon. 












M— Dcpuly. 
JIW «r»tta|. - B, the BT 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN WRITINO. 115 






F. R, A, B, — FeIIdw oI Ihe Royil Ai- 
r. R. O^— FeUov^ Uu Knyil Col. 
r. K O. Br^'l!^ Df thi KoyiU Gc- 

F. B.B.— FtUoirofThcRoiaJaiidely. 









g.' lldttn q*Dd£ — Th 






* Jt —His Of Her MilMv \ 'vS.ftWi™**™-'!-- iS"^ 



notice. 
N. C. — Niirtli Crnrolina ; New chun li. 
N.E. — Northeast. 
Neb. — Nebraska. 
Nem. con (neminecoiitra4iceiite).— 

No one contradicting. 
N. F. — Newfoundland. 
N. H. — New Hampshire. 
N. J. — New Jersey. 
N.N E. — North-northeast. 
N.N.W.— North-northwest. 
No. (numero). — Number 
Non leq. (non sequitnr). — It does 

not follow. 
Not. — Numbers. 
N. 8. — New Style ; Nova Scotia. 
N T. — New Testament. 
N.W. — Northwest 
N. Y. — New York. 

Ob. (oblit). — Died. 
Obi. — Obsolete. 
0. M. — Old Measurement. 
O.B. — Old Style. 
O. T. — Old Testament. 
OxoB. (OxonU). — Oxford. 
Ok — Ounce. 

A: PP:,-- P&gc ; pajpes. 
. or Penn. — Pennsylvania. 
gy- — Paragraph. 



qr. — Hiiarter ; quire. 

qrs. — Huarters ; quires. 

q. s. (quantum suffldt). — Enoug^h 

qt. — Oiiart. 

q V. (quod vide). — Which see. 

R. (Rex ; Regina). — King ; Queen 

Rev. — Reverend. 

R. I — Rhode Island. 

R. L P. (reqoieicat in ]}ac«).— Mj 

he or she rest in peace. 
R. M. — Royal Mafl ; Royal Marine 
R. N. — Royal Navy. 
Rt. — Rijrht. 
R. V. — Rifle Volunteers. 



To wi 



8. —South. 

8c. or 8ca (scilicet). 

namely. 
8c. (■cafpiit). — He or she engrave 

8. C. —South Carolina. 

8.B. — Southeast. 

8ec. — Secretary. 

8«p. or Sept. — Septuafl^P^i^-^ 

««T«. or ««t^. -^«^SS^' 



a. I.e. 



dxrVs-davv ^tvo'wNxS 



ABBR^NIN'VIONS USED IN WRITING. II7 



BOE^ 



,. "S. Q. B.. iB«naA.xxK ?o\>XkltiBqae Ro- 
-manOB). — The Senate and people 
of Rome. 
GB. — Steamship. 
6.S.E. — South-southeast. 
S.S. W. — South-southwest. 
St. — Saint. 
8. T. P. (SacxwTheologia Profaoor). 

— Professor of Theology. 
Supp. — Supplement. 
S.W. — Southwest. 
Byn. — Synonymous. 

TeniL — Teimessee. 

V. C. —Upper Canada. 
Ult. (tdtimo). — Last. 
Vniv. — University. 
U. P. — United Presbyterian. 
U. 8. — United Sutes. 
U. I. — Utah Territory. 

V. — Numeral for five. 
V. (▼emu). — Against. 
V. (vide). — See. 
Va. — Virginia. 



v. C. — Vice-Chancellor. 
Ven. — Venerable 
Ver. — Vermont. 
Viae. — Viscount. 
Vis. — Namely ; to wit. 
V. E. — Victoria Regina. 
V. 8. — Veterinary surgeon. 
Vul. — Vulgate. 

W. — West. 
W. C. — West Centre. 
W.L— West Indies. 
Wia — Wisconsin. 
W.N.W. — West-northwest. 
W.8.W. — West-southwest. 

X. — Numeral for ten. 

Z. or Zt — Christ. 

Zm., jDnas., or Zmi. — Christmas. 

Zn. or Ztian. — Christian. 

Yd. — Yard. 

ft. — And. 

dc. — And so forth. 



LIST OF WORDS, PHRAfiSS^ Sic, 

LOU THE tATIN, FKBNCH, AND OTHSB. ULMGUAGI 






.JS2"EESL.«r' .-, 



L I'abrL Under shelter. [Fr.] 

k U (MroMe. By stealth. [Fr.] 

L la mode. Accordinc^ to the fashion. [Fr.] 

Uea eit Jacta. The die is cast ; the step is taken. [L 

U fresco. In the open air. [It.] 

Uias. Otherwise. [L.] 

i rimproviste. Unawares. [Fr.1 

ilBi* mater. A benign mother. TL.] 

k I'ontraace. To the uttermost. [Fr.j 

liter idem. Another exactly similar. [L.] 

AJter Ipie amlciu. A friend is a second self. [L.] 

k main arm^e. By force of arms. [Fr.] 

Amende honorable. Satisfactory apology ; reparation. 

k mensA et thoro. From bed and board ; divorced. 

A. mervellle. To a wonder. [Fr.] 

Amor ]>atrl». The love of our country. [L.] 

Amour propre. Vanity ; self-love. [Fr.] 

AagHch. In English. [L.] 

Angvli In herbC A snake in the grass. 

Anno Domini In the year of our Lord. 

Anno mimdL In the year of the world. 

Annus mirabUiB. The year of wonders. ILT] 

Ante meridiem. Before mid-day. [L.] 

Apergu. A sketch. [Fr.l 

A perte de yne. Beyond the range of vision. [Fr.] 

A point. To a point exactly. TFr.] 

"■»ir 



£' 



A poae ad eve. From possibility to actuality. [L.] 
A poitariori. From the effect to the cause ; by induct 
A prlorL From the cause to the effect ; by deduction 
• _M«M« Tn th#. noint : seasonably ; in due time. ( 



I20 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



^UlLnin^ nil 



ut mtV-VL EilbB Cxsa w Mone ulf^^ 






Bob bM. lul frt W™erwUUiiK'«not''[Fr,r'" P*ma. 

Bod Joir!' Good dS™JF..] '' 

Banal. A mine. [Fr.y 

Son lolt. Goid tvfninr, [Fr.] 

Ion Wa. Tht height of fasliLoa [F..] 

BTHlft too lolnro, otnmBAQ. when l&boi^ 10 be cooclfte, 1 becooK 



Dunpu UHnu. A place of nilUury cktcIk l^, Geld Df 
CuuUlo. The rabble. (Ft.) 

Ceraanm. r'o order llieiect«dfTomanUaetVii«.».»i^ 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 121 

Charge d'aflaires. A subordinate diplomatist. [Fr.] 

Ohef de cnUne. A head cook. [Fr.l 

Cnief-d'anvre. A masterpiece. fFr.j 

Ohexnln de fer. The iron way ; the railway. [Fr.] 

Chevalier d'indvitrie. One who lives by persevering fraud (/(/. a knight 

of industry). [Fr.] 
Ci-devant. Former. [Fr.] 



Ci-git Here lies. [Fr-l 

drculQi in probando. Begging the que 

Claqoenr. One hired to applaud. [Fr.] 



CircvlQi in probando. Beggingthequestion(/</.acircle in the proof). [L.] 



danor e tenebrls. The brighter from the obscurity. [L.] 
Clamm et venerablle nomen. An illustrious and honored name. [L.] 
Cogito, ergo mm. I think, therefore I am. [L.] 
Comme il lant. As it should be. [Fr.l 



Commune bonnm. A common good. [L.] 
Commnni conienm. By common consent. 
Oompagnon de voyage. A fellow-traveller. 



Commnni confenm. By common consent. [L^ 
Oompagnon de voyage. A fellow-traveller. [Fr.] 
Compos mentis. Of sane mind. [L.] 



Compte rendu. A report ; an account. [Fr.] 

Con amore. With love ; earnestly. [It.1 

Concio ad derum. An address to the clergy. [L.] 

Concours. A competition. [Fr.] 

Confrere. A brother monk or associate. [Fr.] 

Cong< d'^lire. A leave to elect [Fr.] 

Comuio et animis. By counsel and coun^e. [L.] 

Contra bonos mores. Against good morals. [L.] 

Contrarla contrarlis cnrantur. Contraries are cured by contraries. [L..] 



Contre-temps. A mischance. [Fr.] 

- - - y/. abl 

, _. ^.omatic body. [F 

Corpus delicti The body of the offence. [L.] Law. 



Cordon bleu. A skilful cook [lit. a blue ribbon). [Fr.] 
Corps diplomatique. The diplomatic body. [FrJ 



Couleur de rose. A flattering representation. [Fr.] 
Coup d'essai. First attempt. [Fr.] 



Coup de soleil. Sun-stroke. [Fr.l 
Coup d'etat. A sudden stroke of policy. 
Coup de thtttre. Theatrical effect. [Fr.] 



Coup de grace. The finishing stroke. [Fr.] 

Coup de main. A bold effort. [Fr.] 

Coup-d'osiL A rapid elance of the eye. [Fr.l 

Courage sans peur. Courage without fear. [Fr.] 

Coftte que coute. Let it cost what it may. [Fr.] 

Cni bono T To what good. [L.] 

Cnique snom. His own to every one. [L.] 

Cul de sac. A street or lane that has no outlet [Fr.] » r» ■• 

Cum grano sails. With a grain of salt (:'. e. with some allowance). [L.] 

Cum privilegio. With privilege. [L.] 

Currente calamo. With a running pen. [L.] 

Custos rotulonun. The keeper of the roOs. [L.] 

Da capo. From the beginning. [It.] 

De bonne grace. With good grace ; willingly. [Fr-J 

Deceptio vlsus. Optical illusion. [L.1 

De die in diem. From day to day. [L.^ 

De facto. In point of fact. \\..A 

DSgag6. Free and unresitavued. \Y^."\ .^^ «vv»\Tv<a. ■iawcsx'«»^^«'-- 

l>e gnstibus non disputaadum. T\\t^c vs. ^<* c^sv^'"^*' 
pei gratia. By tlie grace o€ OoA. \>-A ^ , ^^ v-Ei^ 
Dpjehxm A la f ourcEette. A. meax Vt^V^^'^- v- 
Da/orv. By right, \.l..^ 



132 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

KSm ^^j^*- ,£^'" "°"""B ■""^°" I" F™""™"- [^) 
Dta EiUlu. Thinlu lo OiA TUl 
Deo liEotD. Ti llir; uLiliiiu-ndnl. U-l 

Dt piDliuiUi rji,tor'Llic ^i!p'Ui>. ri..| 

DllpHl>K°%'iiuicliiildi;ali. [L] 

IHvld* Ht Imperik- Diviric and ^Qvern. [I..I 
DoceDdD diidmnj Wo lenm hy icnchint;- [l-J 



uqii.' Tbe mlKlniJ edilkiii. [L.] 







ED nun. In 1 body. tF'-l 

En inite- III company- V^r-T 

ED bmnfla, ftun-oundine^- L^r-} 

E^^uca in III*™. Woije^in dod! *!#"] *^,^ 

Eiprit <to corpi. Spirit of bcoCIicrlioDd or a c^ 4 

KI ^npW With™.! D.^iK^atlon. C1-] '*i « 

Ei doUcta. T^iom tl.= crtme. t^J, „ ^ ^ ^ 

;■■■»". esst g?,s"^.?-'."™ssJSri O 

U Jl™ oil onB^n or ildt _^fL.] ' «i*^ 




"•.iCT.i™ir>>5t>. -. ,, 



Xj V- L WI I v.< \, 



.'idei defensor. Defender oi •.... 

Pldea Pnnlca. I'unic faith; treachery. ^.. ^ 

FidlU Achates. The faithful Achates ; a trusty ini...^ 

Filiof nnlliof . The son of nobody. [L.] 

FUini terra. A son of the earth ; one low born. [L.] 

Fille de chambre. A chambermaid. [Fr.] 

Fille de Joie. A woman of pleasure. [Fr. j 

Finis eoroiUkt opns. The end crowns the work. [L.] 



FlAgraate bello. During the war. [L.I 

Flagraate delicto. In the very act. [L.] 

Foniter et reete. Courageously and honorably. [L.] Mottt 



Fortiter in re. With firmness in action. [L.] 

Fortvna favet fortibos. Fortune favors the brave. [L.I 

Fortnn* mnltis dat niminm, nnlli satis. To many fortui 

much, to none enough. [L.] 
Fortvna Mqnator. Let fortune follow. [L.] Motto. 
FnuLKas, non flectes. You may break, but you will not bend 
Fronu nvlla fldes. There is no trusting to app>earances. [I 
Fofit irreparabile tempos. Irrecoverable time is flying aw> 
Fvunns. We have been. [L.] Motto. 
Fvit Hiiim. Troy was. [L.] 
Furor loqnendL A rage Tor speaking. TL.] 
Furor •enbendi. A rage for writing. [L.] 

Oalettf de casnr. Gayety of heart. [Fr] 
OalUc^ In French. [L.J 
Oarmm. A boy ; a waiter. [Fr.] 
Oarde 4 eheyaL Mounted guard. [Fr.] 
• - *n corps. A body guard. [Fr.] 
•^-Ve care. [Fr.] Motto. 

'-s^h. [Fr.] Motto. 



S AND PHRASES. 



■ri Hit qil Wd r POK EiittxWhuitW 



j'«*Ti>L,ir°jii] ■' ^^^ 



nUtUnJo. (Fr.] Kuril 



l-s'-lbMilip.'' [ 



nn IB iHUmhA ntvenmal wiihin a ntrf 
■till. Ijtl U be iHiiiKd. [I-] 

S?»n£l^taic point nCiIcBIh. [I.] 

armMOu. An iiiiurgued Indu. [U] 

J MXui'e^ih [L] 

•mil. At IbE |icitni*cif'dulh. IM 

il pAapuli. As a pcmr maiL [L.l 

d^BO vlBDH. &y iIiIb il^a Ihou iluilt conquc 

pATUttL IncheplaKofupareiiL fU] 

liTr.i. li,i„iii,-i^mW./th[lil [L.T 






1 1 pninli panDDL In penon. Il-l 

In pBrii ubnUttn. Slnik riued. [1-1 

In mm mJiSi i. "jId ibr njmin uTMnll. [1-1 

£ mSU au," l^^iuK'ili'^hlct'um (L.) 

■ Ttut' 



Ak t wtT^ng. [L.J 



$» tiKtg. IH the 
WO Jn*. ByUw 






[&} 



1 dlTlIio. Bv divine Uw. [I_~l 
I M Donu iHiuaU. The liK and niW ot knfuicc. I 



■&',. 



as, 



'oftta* at nM^ (t l'Ht^Xw£l£. cSttd 



L'lUlpl. Tlie meirv mu. [IL] 






LATH « pM m i> Homeooia « 






r:ik] 



J^'rmm. Theiiu 



ffi '° L f ""' 



JJ™ •"•■•tAdepuljF or lutatttute, IVi ,^ 
'^rw belrv no Ufht la til i m fucLful denvalSoTi. 
"^Awf^ The wiifln the **'*'-.''-\,j 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. \^^ 






M*UM> ^Sldf^^. [1-1 ^ 

H^lE^p*4anuilu?'4viiK™l|[hlii>S'iiiiin'iL.irlIlihii 
HuEpnnU. iVllhane'inwIShamL [1..] 






■4 tnm. HineudOilne. [L.I 

{•Hen. ionderfbSmicll. [Ll u]™,(0, h 

DpnadL The miuiH DTapcnman. rO 



ktanm upiUia tanl, \^h& wn» nhuv^ "H^ 
lure byvtolence yi*,»\t'ft fc ^to^iiftlV.^*w*. *«"^ 



128 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



N«c plftdda oonta&tiu qidete ««t Nor is he contented with quiet repose 
LL.] Motto. \l^\ 

N«c adre Cm est omnift. The eods do not permit us to iuiow evecythuv . 
N4, ;//. . H<e. ySrw. Bom. [Fr.J 11-.) 

Ne Jupiter qoidem omnilme placet. Not even Jupiter pleases everybody. 
Nem. con. Abbreviation for nemtnt contradicente : without opposition, f lJ.1 
Nem. die. Abbreviation for nentine dissentunte ; without oppositioo. |L.] 
Nemo me impune laceiiU. No one annoys me with impunity. (.L.] Motto 

of Scotland. 
Nemo mortalium omnlbiu horls laplt. No man is wise at all times. [L.] 
Ne pine ultra. What cannot be surpassed; perfection (lit. no more be> 

yond). fl-.] 
Ne lator mtra crepidun. Let not the shoemaker go beyond his last [L..} 
Nihil ad rem. Nothing to the purpose. [L.] 
Nil admirarL To wonder at nothing. [L.] 
Nil deeperaiidiim. Never despair. [L.J 
N'importe. It matters not. [Fr.] 
Niai prim. Unless before; a judicial writ. [L.1 
NoblMHM oblige. Rank has its obligations. [Fr. j 
Nolens rolena. Whether he will or not. [L.j 
Noli me tanfere. Touch me not. [L.] 
Nolle proseqnL To be unwilling to procee<l. 
Nom de gnerre. An assumed name. LFr.l 
Horn de plume. Assumed name of an author. [Fr.] 
Non assumpsit. He did not assume (a legal plea). [L.] 
Non compos mentis. Not sound in mind. [L.] 
Non est vivere, sad valere vita. Life is not mere existence, but d» 

enjoyment of health. [L.] 
Non generaat aqvila coinml 

Motto. 
Non mnlta, sad mnltom. Not many things, but much. [L.] 
Non seqnltnr It does not follow. [L.] 
Non sibi, sad patria. Not for himself, but for his country. 
Noadtor ex sociis. He is known by his companions. [L.] 
Nota bene. Mark well. I L.1 
NAtre Dame. Our Lady. LFr.] 

Nons avons chang< tont cela. We have changed all that. 
Nons yerrons. We shall see. [Fr.| 

Novns homo. A new man ; a man risen from obscurity. [L.] 
Nnlli secnndns. Second to none. [L.] 
Nollns dies sine linea. No day without something done. [L.] 
Nunc ant nonanam. Now or never. (L.] 
Nnnqnam aliad natora, allnd sapienua didt. Nature never say 

thing, and wisdom another. [L.] 
Nunqnam non paratns. Always ready. [L.] Motto. 



LL.] 



Eagles do not bring forth pigeons. 1 L 



[L.] Motf 



[Fr.) 



ObUt 
Obiter 

Obsta .. ,. 

Odi prof annm 



He or she died. [L. 



He or she died. 1 1 ..1 
' dictom. A thing said by the way. or in passing. 
principUs. Resist the beginnings. [L.1 
lofannm vvlgns, et arceo. 1 loathe and repulse 
I theologicnm. Hatred among theologians. [L.] 
eye. IFr.* 
magnfflco 

^mn. Thcic u €» viuv.v.vvi'^..'..*. >-• - — 

Love coixquers a\\ iVvvuRS. \.\A 
I-abor conquers a\\ iYv\tMSS. \v.\ 
flying rumor. ^F»A 



[L.) 
the profa 



Otxmo ignotam pro inagii£teo' Everything unknown is thou 
magnificent. [L.) . . 

Oawe trinmu perfaotmn. There is a thTeefoXdness ot VEVQ^x^. 
/»erfect. /L.J 
;2"r* "^to*** Mmor. Love conauers a\\ iVvmRS. vW\. 
^«^ »tojrft l«b«r. 
*• "*•. ^ncysay: a flying rumor. 



FOREIGN WORDS k 



PKUHSTnU.'r'cn^BIiUd'ill. 11-1 

PilDU nan iln« palv4n- Tlic p^ ■> not e^ed wUtumt labor- 

PMUcp, crlMiiilll. All •ccompikt IL,] 

pKt4r^£iUU& ThFbrber DftlufamOy, [L.] 
F«tu pidite' The btber of 1ii« counTry^ [LJ 
PfttlBDC* piiH hUam. ntience sarpusKS hnowlede^ [FrO Moa 

'■ id'-'o. 




FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



D- pnDdn oop^ 




FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



aajSkUL A^HS^hndydedded. [L. 



Un n'lM bma qu It wni- NathUi^ » lovely u (Tuth- [F'O 
BaiUqiu HHcUt dmi dataiit ladt Tlu natk wths UU the ri 

people. IM "^ "■P«™ 

Bmjf fnU. IndifferenceL opatby, [Fr.] 

tui ohunr. WHham dunrlnir. IFi.] Hoao. 

Buu Din ilm. Ndflilin sUlniit God. ^Fi.] MoBo. 

lui xiseL Wiibnul ore r Tiee uid eBiy. [Fi,] 
Eutor I ■■ilia The TsUnr imlclwd. jX.] 
BitLi mpBrqaL Enoi^li *nd pvn. \C.\ 
Hun a^ pat. SiveEliiueir»1iQ can, [Fr-I 

BupWiImIl Almqnul^iit. {]-! IdHU, 
Smpv IdlB. AIwanl>ie fame. lU} 

amri»idiSJ'TlSk£"pMih. IM Mono, 

tl^SuSt (loruws^^lliu passes anr die elory or UwwcirU. [ 

Una die, Wllhout ■ day )»Hiv ipimlnled [T..) 
BiBB qoAlDa- Aq IndbpEioablf i:«idl1IOD. [U] 

BpecUmur .gmdo. Lelui\K«\i^ViOMi^3™^^^f^'*''"' 
flwi neii li Dm, iKhope'tatoCitA- \V-^ ■*■*"■ 
SplltnuL JnteltactHlJ -.■>««. V?<-^ 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 









Ot; 



B/m a ^zin.'b£Sk'^A""(L!f'' 



noori^a^ [' 









Hai't^ tKI,' rrcacnc lliy tSa\. [nid F^,] MunD. 
TUq dUt. The IWni HUte : ihe commoiu. [Fr,j 

buUbjthchiJIS [ff]" " '"' '" tV c ■«• 

ThTlnlll. The i{n«ii4>f manhood. [L.] 
tumlUL (at MBtmtlB. &» mBnv meD, to Buy cplnloDS. [L_1 
aliainMt. Inuinnv ■ordi. (L.) ■—«">■ 

^-d^Vf™ of i;^hi,tl.'fi.°[F.^'^" ""'*"■ ^^ 

.. nrll^' tlw whole o. nothing, [FrJ Mono. 

U (Wt riof was. IU.1 



'^;r; 



iu,i 



=. y-\ 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



iAL, 



VtolM lut ™."Tnilh M 
Vemili nn^CTntninaii. 



l-^:,ltl 



•tumli By main (OKcl/a, ta (one and «nnil. ILjl 
lult MHr [»tri» The love oTour countTF pievaU^ Ll'] 
r«u» « IWs. Byviitue»ni1f«illi. ' [L-J Mono. 



™ilMrtilt. Inen pcopfriy 



.k,™of.i«uf. IM Mono. 

Witallk SucKutocHIUiMI. [Ft.1 

Tin It MnMllH. LomttrellwiepuTjIlc. [F'O 
71m ■■ nit Lone Utc Uw kine- (t^-l ^ 

Vox (t pratwU bK a "''f°^'^'\P^"'j^'^|jS^he' 



»34 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION OF 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 

OF 
SEVERAL MODERN LANGUAGES. 



The four European langua^^es most frequently met are French, Gen 
Italian, and Spanish : and therefore we give the rules which »ppAy to t 
only, premising that the Dutch, Swedish, and Danish very much resei 
the German in pronunciation and otherwise, as the Portuguese doei 
Spanish. 

FRENCH WORDS. 

The vowel ft, in French, has two distinct sounds : the first Uxogt torn 
/as, as in the English wordyStr/ the second short, found in AoA as in 
The circumflex d, however, has a sound broader than a in /or, being ii 
mediate between that in /ar and that in /aii. 

e has three sounds : the first short and acute, like e in met, as /t/; 
second open and more prolonged, like a in /utle, as tAe; and the 1 
obscure, like e in battay, as retour. 

i is distinguished by two sounds : the first found in it, neariy as in 
English word fig : the second in ^xil, like t» infield. 

o has three sounds : the first in trdne, sounded nearly as in robe; 
second in parole, sounded as in rob; the third in corps, sounded as in i 

«, which has no precise equivalent in English, takes nearly the \ 
sound of ue in fiue; although with the nasal », as in un, it takes the S( 
of ung: 

7 is similar to the French t. 

at is like i or a. 

KBL is like o. 

ei is Uke i, 

en is similar to the sound of u in tttb, only more prolonged, and nc 
resembles « in fur. 
ie is like ee in English, or f. 

ol usually sounds like wH ; e. g. mot Vs vtotvowQcedL m'«)& ot ftvwJk, 
ou sounds /ike oo in English. 

b, e. d, /, k, p, t, V, and B sound tVvt same «&Va'E,T>%\\^. 
S before a, o, and u is hard, as In ttxe 1S.t\ft\\sYi ^oxA gaj ; "^^^^ 
^ it is soii, having the sound of xh, ot o€ s\a,tU<KHrt, 



SEVERAL 



IOI>ERN LANGt;. 









dl i> like J-A In EnB»l»h ! '* '" '"' '. *■ "t 1^°? *L''''t 
ccuaxont). or. l«» other words, ts "luii^,"'' »h|.> ^"If ' 

.,«Ubly n.tft=, " B. Tn ^.'^. "-»«,: ■"">« , *%?» n 

. . . ~ .^.«^. etc. *Ok.^».''l>. *ti^ 






■^%^ 



136 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION OF 



GERMAN WORDS. 

a, in German, usually sounds as in the English word ySrr, thoagli it a« 
times approximates the a in/at. 

e. when long, sounds like a in /a^ ; when short, like e in met ; frequei 
however, it has an obscure sound, like e in battery, 

i, long, sounds like t in marine, or ee in English ; t, short, sounds Uk 
in/flf. 

o, long, is like that in no : 0, short, like that in on. 

u, long, is like 00 in cucJtoo ; u, short, is like 00 ixi£'00d. 

7 sounds like the German i. 

M, or K, is similar to the German e, or to the English a in/bit. 

M, or 9, nearly resembles the eu in French, but has no panlld aoaai 
English ; the sound in our language nearest to it is that of e in Aer. or a 
/Ur; the German poets often rhyme it with e {a or i). 

110, or tf, is like the French u. 

Ml is equivalent to the English ou in our. 

Un and ta resemble in sound the English oi, as in oiL 

ei and ey have the sound of t in minr. 

ai is similar to the preceding, but somewhat broader. 

vi sounds like d^o-e, 

to is equivalent to ee in English. 

The consonants f, k, 1, m, n, p, q, t, and z. are pronounced as in Eaf 

b and d, at the beginning of a word, have the same sound as in Eag 
at the end of a word, d is pronounced like /, and tl like /. 

c, before a, 0, and u, sounds like k ; before e, i, andx Ul^e ts. 

elk has a sound unknown in our language, and which, consequenti^ 
be learned from an oral instructor only. It somewhat resembles that 
h, with a strong aspiration ; after a, o, and m, it is guttural : for ev 
in the word tuh. When it follpws e, i, a, 6, U, au^ at eu, it seem 
sounded more in the palate, as in irh. 

g, at the beginning of a word, sounds as in the English word ; 
other situations it should be pronounced like the German ch. I 
German dialects, however, it is sounded in all cases nearly like i 
English. 

h is pronounced only when it begins a word. 

g and h, occurring after a vowel. lengthen its sound ; e. g. in 77 
Fldh, etc. When g and h occur in the middle of a compound • 
have the same sound as when they are initial. 

J has the sound of the English y (consonant). 

q is used only before », and sounds as in the English word ^ 

r is pronounced like rr in the English word terror, but som 
strongly. 
B, at the beginning of a word, or \>ctweet\ vwo >iw««€&,\ 
cases it is sharp, as in this, n Vs alwajs sYiaxp. 
•Ch sounds Uke the EngUsli sk ; »,>»tB «• 
th is pronounced like t. 



SEVERAL MODERN LANGUAGES. I37 

y sounds like/* in Enj^Ush, except when between two vowels ; it is then 
usually pronounced like our v. 

w resembles our v; but in pnniouncing it the upper teeth should not be 
allowed to touch the lower lip, as is done in uttering the English v, 

I and ti sound like ts. 

ITALIAN WORDS. 

a. in Italian, b Uke tiie English a iny!>r, though its sound varies some- 
what in different situations. 

• has two sounds : first close, as a in/eUe : second open, like e in m^ 
i is like e in me, or » iny^. 

has two sounds : first close, as faiMote; second open, dmilar to o in not, 
but rather broader. 

XL is like 00 in English. 

ai and mi. in Italian, are pro^ diphthongs. Accordii^;ly Cairo is to 
be pronounced ki^-ro^ and Ausa, ouf-sS, etc 

The consonants b, d, f, 1, m. n, p, q, ■, t, and y are similar to the English. 

k, w, z, and 7 are not used by the Italians, except in spelling foreign 
words. 

c and oc, before a, o, and u, are sounded Uke k ; before e, i, vndy, like 
ch or tsh. 

As c, when immediately before a, 0, or », is never pronounced like cht 
in order to express this sound in such cases, the vowel 1 is inserted ; thu% 
cia, do, ciu, are pronounced chi, cho, choo. 

eh is employed to express the sound of k before e and i% 

g, before a, o, and m, is hard, as hi the English word gtt; before ^, t', and 
y, it sounds like the English >/ gia, gio, giu are pronounced >2l,>9,>w. 

1^ is used to express the sound of hard g before e and t*. 

gU has the sound of the liquid / (1). or of /<* in mMion ; thus BcgUo is 
pronounced boU'yo. 

gn has the same sound as in French ; or, in other words, is like the Span- 
bh n : e. g. Bologna is pronounced bo-ion^ -yA, 

h is never sounded in Italian. 

J at the b^^inning of a syllable is like the En^^ish y (consonant) ; at the 
end of a word it is equivalent to u (Italian). 

r resembles the French, but is trilled somewhat more strongly. 

■e, before e and t, is Uke the English sh : e. g. Scio is pronounced shetf-o. 

1 has commonly the sound ofd* in English ; mm is pronounced like ts. 

SPANISH WORDS. 

The Spanish a sounds as in the EngUsh wordybr .- • Uke a %!a. oU -. S.^^«»^ 
e in mete; o as in EngUsh ; U VBite 00 : vsA^ VSiut^^asi^vx, ^^.^ 

«i and aj are like long i m 'EnftYv^ %S8. «»M!Aa.>B2*ft w^*' "^^ * 
•y are pronounced «^f . vi«Btf*»«.*^ '^ 

The consonants f. I (dn«\eV m,^ ^, %» V »»o^ ^ » ^ 
as in English. 



RULES FOR SPELLING. 



MONOSYLLABLES ending in /*, /, or J, immediately preceded by a single 
vowel, double the final consonant ; as, mass, bill, staff, etc., with the fol- 
lowing exception!) : oj, cltf, gas, has, Ms, if,is^o/^ pus, this, thus, us, 
was, yes. 

Monosyllables not ending in y, /, or j do not double the final consonant ; 
as, man, rod^ etc. Exceptions : aeld, burTf dutt, buMtt^ ebb, egg, err, /Imm, 
fuzz, in, odd. 

The final ^ of a primitive word is rejected before a suflix beginning with 
a vowel ; as. have, having. Exceptions i Words ending \n ce ot ge retain 
the e before able or ous; as, trace^ traceable : outrage, outrageous. The e 
is also retained in verbs ending in ee and oe: as, see^ seeing: shoe^ shoeing. 
Singey swinge^ and tinge retain e followed by ing ; as, sif^ge, singeing. 

The final consonant of a monosyllable, and accented final syllable, if 
preceded by a single vowel, is doubled before a suflix beginning with a 
vowel ; as, run, runner. Exceptions : When the derivative does not retain 
the accent of the root, the final consonant is not always doubled ; as, r^fer, 
r^erence. at, jr, and >fc are never doubled. Words derived from ^wx (except 
gassing and^ojjry) have only one s; as, geu, gases. 

The final ^ of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is 
changed into i before a suflix which does not commence with s; d&, glory, 
glorious. Exceptions : y is retained in words derived from dry and shy : 
as, shy, shyly. 

Words ending with a double letter preserve it double in their derivatives, 
unless the suffix begins with the same letter ; as skill, skU^fUL. 



PUNCTUATION 



M.iVivi*-» 



.. Diaeresis. 

• ^^°^ .tnn >>"" Quotation nitfk 

, interrogate^"- « 

Exdamatio^ \ Brace. 

•• ^^^^ . ••• EUipsls. 

; semicolon. EUipsiS'^^' 

, Comma. -^ ^^^^p^i^. 

^^•..^. . Asterisk. ^ 



Dagger, 



O Pare ^crotchets. . uasb— • _ 

11 Brackets.^ 1 Double d»« 

. Apostrophe. : ^^^^^ 

• "^^*^.«A. 1 Parallels. 

' ^'^^'"^ i Paragrap 

, GraTcaccent. 5 »- "* 

• Circumflex acc«^ 
. Circumflex. '^'te^***- 

. Thelong.-"-^-;- 
, Tbe short, ^rbrere. 



paragrapl»« 
Aste 



^r Index 
• • or •*• 



A MEMOIR OF ADONIS AND PENELOPE. 

BY A TRUTHFUL BIOGRAPHER. 

An Exercise in Pronunciation, 

Adonis was a grimy tatterdemalion, amenable to no one. He was 
mischievous and subtle, the ally of other juvenile gamins in all street alter- 
cations. His parents lived in such a maelstrom of bestial vice and squalor 
a bourgeois under whose surveillance he came prophesied that he would 
end his life on the gallows as a fit chastisement Adonis came to feel the 
contumdy of his position, and breaking away from his comrades and his 
dog, a mangy, canine mongrel, he began a maritime career. His herculean 
strength, equable temper, acumen, fidelity, probity, heroism, and latent 
genius soon raised him to the rank of mate. The ship anchored in a bayou 
of Siam, and before the crew was acclimated a plague broke out, and 
Adonis was the only Caucadaii who escaped death. He took peremptory 
command of the ship and reinforced the crew with Malays, then set sail for 
New York. There he sold the ship and its contents, — a cargo of almonds, 
anchovies, spermaceti, cement, caoutchouc, and cayenne pepper. This put 
his finances in good condition. He invested in the mercantile trade and 
soon demonstrated his incomparable ability as a financier, and gained prece* 
dence and prestige as a roan of wealth. Chi^n at his humble birth made 
him a misanthrope and forbade all pretence to gallantry, and led him to 
isolate himself from society ; though he would have been received with ic^a!t 
by scheming papas and mammas. He was inveigled into making his d^but 
at a dinner given in honor of distinguished Uterati. His vis-4-vis at the table 
was a comely matron. Next her sat a lovely piece of femineity, whose cog* 
nomen was Penelope. Adonis was a connoisseur of beauty, and he thought 
her more beautiful than any houri of the harem he had seen in the East 
Her figure was lithesome, her pedal extremities tiny and pretty, her njdvet^ 
of manner charming. On inquiry he learned that she was an accomplished 
pianist, and equally skilful in treading the pedals of the organ ; in the terp- 
sichorean art she was marvellous ; and her culinary skill was unsurpassed, 
especially in the making of truffles. Adonis was wear^ <^ <:.<^i&BAss%,-«B^^ 
showed himself an aspirant tot \v« tawox. Wt 'iiNt^w ^w^x^ 'C!»fc '®'°**'^^^2«=' 
other combatants and heeded n«A lYvcVx ^oosxvdL\»«&»wP^ '^^*'^^^«* 
of hb tkce, hb Mipple, stal^raxl loan, YAs »iviVc^ ^^ CT"^^^^^"^ '**^* 
Penelope, and ihe Aowed \»j Yi«t teceV^NVc^ ^iax^wa 



EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION. 143 

air of bravado on a bicycle. Aeronauts ascended in balloons ; conjurers, 
dressed as Chinese mandarins, performed strange feats ; a wonderful pageant 
with weird scenic effect was displayed in pantomime, and simultaneously 
was heard a strange orchestral accompaniment from a calliope. 

The glamour investing Rome waned ; and they began to complain of the 
cuisine of the Italian table d'hdte. The water seemed poisoned by the fau- 
cet through which it flowed ; they grevr weary of mayonnaise dressing and 
farina dessert, and longed for a taste of pumpkin pie. 

Penelope became enervated, and her flaccid muscles and fetid breath 
showed exhaustion. It was soon apparent that her invalidism was no for- 
gery, and Adonis removed her at once to Paris, having a presentiment of 
danger. They could not agree upon a doctor. Penelope wanted a homoe- 
opathist, and urged that in the past this treatment had carried her safely 
through tonsillitis, asthma, bronchitis, and diphtheria. But Adonis was deaf 
to her entreaties, and called an allopathist, who said that her respiratory 
apparatus was defective, that she was suffering from hysteria, and was 
threatened with cerebral meningitis. He ordered an unguent from the 
pharmaceutist, composed of an alkali salt, iodine, oleomargarine, benzine, 
quinine, and nicotine. He administered strychnine, morphine, and cocaine 
until a comatose state was produced, from which poor Penelope never 
rallied. Adonis refused the condolence of friends, and was in a lamentable 
condition. With a prescience of approaching death, he took his will from 
its envelope and added a codicil, revoking all former bequests and leaving 
his entire fortune of more than five million ducats to the city of Rome, on 
condition that the ashes of himself and wife should repose in the Pantheon. 

Intent upon suicide he rushed from the house, and encountered a band 
of communists, singing the Marseillaise and crying, '*Down with the guillo- 
tine ! " " Down with all who will not join us ! " They tried to force Adonis 
into their ranks. He resisted them, and in the mil^e was shot in the abdo- 
men with a carbine, his jugular vein was severed by a poniard, and his 
assailants were killed by the explosion of a dynamite bomb. 

According to a request found in the will, the bodies of Adonis and Penel- 
ope were wrapped in the same cerement and taken to the crematorium at 
Milan. Their ashes were placed in an urn and conTcyed to Rome, where 
they found sepulture in the Pantheon. 



Atid^>4a'i^ ■• 



■ lliiiiillilil. ilia^i4h\a, a 

AJ^^, -« «l1i »»- ■"! 
SiuBd. ('nund. >t« •rmur 



Boh^mU iTypcJ 



CAYENNE. 145 FALCHION. 



w^lir or Sjetianaiy ■lUhoriLv b 



iheYoti^.V [Fr. pro,! "fb^taB^ 
■Ian [■Ifiniiii^ir'lr^ h che laa. 



Con]arM-| tunpto^ ■»( k 



^|dS'»J;^«"'""'^''™" 









"arton'?f"';J.".XSdV^«™^"°V^ii!^'"'^^ 



>T*, clU4«D'pi>K. Hdf eh 



H i.lm *'.'»•<»"> "^ 



^X;|i!;;;^':'B|El: 


toSSidtltJxS^ 


alS3r'.'.^'''liih'; "«'^i^tfb. [Sb; 


i.'iiX""""-^r 


^:i^;^rt£^ci-<^>^-^n^ 




QU9BMV,V>«>'«^. "f «»°- 




3-Sf^^1"j.^^ 




ssaMai;' 




al§'= 


Dll41lllni; (IuU'dJui, kdI glad-*-A - 


^^1 


*'&^^"«'''"^-"- 


;„i<a,. B.n|dfl.l*,-^«n„^ 






^^^a 


^rij^™°^i^wcS."'**"' 




MfU. htrtli. ,M htrtll. 




gSS!;;£'hr..1CSi.,«.K*.-... 


i2;Sd;^'';?''/a; 






Hstuin, hon^, am om'il. 






g^^'";^!^,",'4'!f 


Joort, Ao-'ri m.^hiio'r]. 




«lCrUfW.h/-d^iTn'jc<l.><'«hMlril>'- 


^^1 




lUtaf . «■ 



MAMMA. 



147 



SACRILEGIOUS. 



. ma-ina', not mEm'a. 
nilMlHli, man-di'mus, fK^ man'- 
a-mus. 
tadurin, man-da-ren', not man'da- 

Micv, manOw no' man^i. 
ufflnM, mari-tim, mo/ mar^-tfm. 



mai/sil^yiz', »«/ mar- 



AiMlllaiae 

sel-lez'. 
{ati&, mat'in, no/ mi'tin. 
Cfttrieida, mat'ri-sid, not mS'tn-dd. 
Catnm, ma'tron, not mat'ron. 
C1HIT0, mdv, not may. 
Hayonnaiie, mi'on'az', im/ ml-on- 

fir. 
MMliaval, med'i-e'val, mo/ mS-di^- 

MtUe. mils', no/ me4e'. 
Xflmoir. mem'wor or mem'wor. 
Mwitngftig, men>in-J!'ris. not men*iii- 

Je'tis. 
lurcaatUe, m6r^an-tilf wo/mir*kaii- 

tcK. 
miaa, volVaxi, pre/erred to xtAAastf. 
MIWHithrope, mis'an-thrdp, not mi»> 

ai/thrOp. 
MlflCliieTOiu, mis'chiv-us, not inis- 

chev'us. _ 

Mitrmntrna, mis-kon'stroo, notvcas- 

kon-strS^. 
Mooad, mon'ad, not mj/nad. 
Kongnl, munK'grel, not mon'grel. 
MorphiiM, mor'to, no/ mor^n. 
Ibtbology, mith-oV6-ji, n«/mI-thoK- 

Namttf. nS^v'tS'. not niiv'ta. 
NatUnuu, na'shun-al, no/ n&'shun-al. 
Natnr*. nA'ttlr [Im. and Stonnonthl 

naf yoor [Web.], nit'yir PrtTor.]. 
NIoonne, nik'd-tm, not nik^6-teii. 
Nomad, nom'ad, not nfl'mad. 
Napttal, nup'shal, not nup'chaL 
OeteTO, ok-ti'v6, not ok-ta'v6. 
OleonuurguiiM, 6-le-o-mar'f^.rin, 

not 6-leH>-marja-ren. 
Onarona. on'ir-us, not (/nir-us. 
Onyx, yiUks, not on'iks. 
OrdiMferal, or^es-tral, not or-kesf- 

traL 
OviMd, or'de-alf not or-dS'al. 
Ozalii, oks'a-Us, no/ oks.aKis. 
Oj«r, Vyir, not oK4r. 
PlMMit, payent.no/j^O«n^* 



PantomliiM, pan'to-mlm, »&/ pan'- 

to-mem. 
Fapa, pa-pa', no/ pii'pa. 
Parmt, pai/ent, not par'ent nor jin'- 

rent. 
Patent, pat'ent [There is good au- 

thoriw also (or /a'teut.] 
Patrlotlim, pS'tn-ot-izm, not pat'ri- 

ot'izm. 
Patron, pfi'tron, not pat'ron. 
POdal tadjective], pe'dal; [noun], 

Pwudope, pe*nel'd-pe, not pen'e-lOp. 
Pwromptoiy, peKemp-to-ri, not pit' 

txofto-xL 
Phannaomitlst, far-ma-sa'tist, not 

nir-ma-kii'tist. 
Phannaoopotia, (ar-ma-ko-pe'ya, not 

far-ma-kdp'i-a. 
Pianist, pi-an'ist, no/ pe'an-ist. 
Plaao-forte, pe-a'nd-for'ti, not p£- 

a'nO-fBrt. 
Placard, pla-kard' or plak'Srd. 



Plaene, plag. wo/ 
Poiuard, 



pon'yard, not poin'yard. 
Procedeneo, pre-s£d'ens, not pre'se- 

dens. 
Procodent [noun], pres'e-dent, not 

pre-se'dent. 
Pnlnde [noun], prel'ad or prelild ; 

[verb], pre-lud'. 
PrMdonce, pre'shi-ens, not pre'shens. 
PrOMntlment [previous conception], 

pre*sen'ti-ment, not pre-zent'ment. 
PrMtim, pres'tij [Eng. pro.] : pras'- 

tezh' [Fr. pro.]. 



Pretence, pro-tens', not pre'tens. 
Pretty, prit'ti, not pret'tu 
Pristme, pris'tin, not pris'tln. 
Probity, prob'i-ti, not pre/bi-li. 
Prologae, proKog or prO'lotf. 
Pronnncianoa, prd-nun-she-a'sliun, 

not pro-nun-si-a'shun. 
Proteitant, prot'es-tant, not pr^tes- 

tant. 
Pnmpkln, pumpTcin, not pun'km. 
Qnlnlne, kwi-nln'or kwl'nin, not kc- 

nen'. ^ , 

Seceptiyitv, res-^p-tiv'i-ti, ftot rt- 

sep-tiv^-tl. 
Recees, re-ses', not re'scs. ^ 

Bespiratory, re-spir'a-to-ri, not res:- 

9i-ra-to-r(. 



Palace, pal'as, not \»?U. \"Wwa»R*> xVtonc^ i^^""^^ *«*»-■ 



pan-tbe^on 
pan'the-on (.ClassVcaX yco^ 



•tv\\^>^'&< 



wd&l;ase.u8;ti.FT.; ».««fc\V%Vw •^^^'P^^^^ ' '^ '^^'''^' 



Ov^s&aeo'"- 



"esv," 



•ClBiSS^ 



SCENIC. 



148 



WISTARIA. 



Betnle, senile, not se'nik. 
B«imltiir«, se|/ul-tar, not se-puKtOr. 
Baelk, shck. not shek. 
BUm. si-ain', not si'am. 
BlmvltaBeoiu, sl>mul-ti<ne-us, not 

siin-ul-ti'ne-us. 
Bonorow, so-nyrus, not son'or-us. 
Bon^, suf, not sow. 
Spermaceti, sper-ma-sS'ti, not sper> 

ma-sct'i. 
Boualor, skwaior, not skwol'ir. 
Stalwart, st^wirt, not stfiKwiit. 
Strategic, stra-tejlk, not stra-tej'- 

ik. 
Strychnllie, strik'nln or strik'nin. 
Suavity, swav'i-ti. not swfiv^-ti. 
SubtUe, sul/tii, not sa\f\. 
Sabtle, sutn. not sub^til. 
Snpple. su|/l, not soc/pl. 
SurveiUaiice, sir-viKyans, not skx'- 

va-Ians. 
Table d'hOte, iS/hVAbxf. 
Tatterdemalion, tat-tir-de-mal'yun, 

no' tat-tir-de-nial'^un. 
Tenet, ten'et. not te'net 
Terpnchoreaa, tirp-si-ko-r£'an, not 

t6rp-si-k0r'e-an. 



TIte-i-tito. tfitOltltf. 
Tinj, ti'ni, not tiit'i. 
Tirade, ti-rid', not tfrid. 
ToudiatlB, ton-sQItis, net ton-dMi^ 

tis. 
Tour, todr, not towr. 
Trio, trf'6 or trS'A. [AH authoritia 

¥ve trfd the preference, but Web, 
he Ini., and Stonnonth give tr^i 

as an allowable pronundraon.] 
Tmeolenee, troo\fl4etts, net Xxvk.*^ 

lens. 
Tmffle, troo'fl, not truPB. 
Trntb, trooth, not trSoM. 
Vngoent, unfrewent, not un'ient. 
f, va-ga^, not vifga-ft. 
icnce, vSHie-mens, nai ve-hi'* 

mens. 
Violoncello, vS-6-lon-chel1o «r ve-^ 

lon-selld, not vI-d-lon-seKUi. 
Vil-A-vlB, viz^il've'. not vis'a-vis. 
Vieor, viz'er, not vfxtr. 
Wdgella, wf-geni-i. not wi-tSHi-A. 

[The name is derived fircun irkigtlt 

a German naturalist.1 
Weird, werd, not wi'erd. 
Wiitaria, wis-taM-&, not wis-teM-4. 



Vacary 
Veneme 



ale, add. beflr. Mnn, ask. f^ ; mt. met, th£re. her ; pine, pin ; did, odd. ndon, 
wdbl ; use. us : u. Fr. ; g, i;et ; J, Jar ; fa, Fr. ton ; ch. chain ; th, then ; th, thin. 



IDNraered €iigliiD. 

Brown, Jones & Oo., Fnrrlera, beg to annoimoe tl 
they will make up gowns, capes, etc., for ladles ont 
their own skin. 

An Inscription painted on a board adonis a tenoc 
Kent: **NotiB: If any man's or woman's oow gets ii 
these here oats, his or her tall will be cnt off as 1 
case may be." 



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